Sleep disorders in university students during COVID-19: United States of America, Mexico and El Salvador




Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to measure
students' sleep disorders 12 months after the start of the COVID-19
Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 693 students from
three universities in El Salvador, Mexico, and the United States using
the Student Health Behavior Inventory.
Results: Sleep disorders were identified in the sample with those in the
US reporting higher levels of sleep disorders and those in El Salvador
reported the least. Differences were also observed by gender with
females reporting more sleep disorders one year into the pandemic than
Conclusions: The global pandemic related to COVID-19 has had
a profound impact on the mental and physical wellbeing of students.
Sudden changes in learning modalities, modifications to work schedules,
and potential loss of loved ones have contributed to sleep disorders in
this population group. Universities need to take steps to address the
evolving needs of college students as they cope with this pandemic. 
Keywords: Sleep; Coronavirus; Students; Cross-cultural comparison


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Author Biographies

Edgardo Rene Chacon Andrade, Profesor y director, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador

Licenciado en Psicología (Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas - UCA, 1984) y Maestría en Docencia Universitaria (Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador - UTEC, 2000). Docente a nivel de Maestría y Pregrado en la Carrera de Licenciatura en Psicología.

Miembro del Equipos Evaluadores en procesos de autoestudio para evaluación de la Calidad por parte del Ministerio de Educación (MINED) en El Salvador, y a nivel internacional Miembro de equipos de Pares Evaluadores Externos, en Comisión Técnica de Evaluación y Acreditación CONEAUPA, Panamá.

Formación en recursos humanos y programas de enseñanza virtual. Experiencia laboral como Director de Recursos Humanos en instituciones públicas y privadas. Se desempeña como Director de la Escuela de Psicología de la UTEC, del 2010 a la fecha.

Ha desarrollado y publicado investigaciones sobre: “Estudio de buenas prácticas en Clínica de Psicología. Caso UTEC (2014)”, Afectaciones psicológicas en estudiantes de instituciones educativas públicas ubicadas en zonas controladas por grupos pandilleriles (2016)”, “La salud general relacionada con la adaptación a la vida universitaria. Análisis de factores asociados (2018)”. “Impacto de los rasgos personales positivos en la participación de los estudiantes universitarios en México, Colombia y El Salvador”, (Frontiers in Psychololy, 2020), y “Variables sociodemográficas, miedo a la COVID-19, ansiedad y depresión: prevalencia, relaciones y modelo explicativo en la población general de siete países latinoamericanos”, (Frontiers in Psychololy, 2021). “Satisfacción de los pacientes con el servicio de atención psicológica de una clínica universitaria”, (Revista Alerta, 2021). “Prevalencia de ansiedad, depresión y miedo a la COVID-19 en la población general salvadoreña”, (Entorno, 2021).

Marlon Elias Lobos Rivera, Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador

Marlon Elías Lobos Rivera is Psychologist, master's degree in university teaching, currently a doctoral student in education at Universidad Don Bosco. Professor and researcher at Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador.  M. Sc. Lobos Rivera has made multiple national and international publications in high-impact scientific journals. M. Sc. Lobos Rivera teaches subjects related to psychological research and applied statistics. 

Angelica Nohemy Flores Monterrosa, Technological University of El Salvador.

Graduated in psychology, research assistant at the Technological University of El Salvador with publications of articles related to mental health and validation of psychological instruments in the Salvadoran context. She also serves as an assistant professor of the research seminar subject.

Miguel A Perez, Department of Public Health

Dr. Miguel A. Perez is a Professor of Public Health at Fresno State.  He has ample experience as a health educator whose work focuses on cultural competence and international health issues among adolescents.  Dr. Perez has received four Fulbright awards, and has taught and conducted research in Colombia, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Thailand, South Africa, Peru, Chile, and Mexico. 


Dr. Perez has served as the chair of the Department of Public Health at California State University, Fresno as well as Director of the MPH program at the same institution.  In 2008, he was appointed by the State Superintendent of Education to the panel that drafted the Health Education Standards for grades K-12 in the State of California.  He was appointed to the same panel in 2018 during the state health education standards revision process.

Dr. Perez has published and lectured extensively on the topic of cultural and linguistic competence. He is co-editor of the textbook entitled "Cultural competence in health education and health promotion" now in its third edition.   He is also the co-editor of the publication “Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Health: A Multicultural Perspective “ Dr. Perez has served as general editor for the Global Journal of Health Education and Promotion (USA), Associate Editor for Frontiers in Public Health (Europe), and serves on the editorial boards for Salud Uninorte (Colombia), Revista de Salud Humana (Peru), and Revista de Divulgação Científica Sena Aires (Brazil).


Dr. Perez has received numerous awards including the Professional Service Award from the American Association of Health Educators and a Certificate of Recognition for Distinguished Accomplishments from the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities.   


Dr. Perez has a long history of interdisciplinary collaboration to address the needs of multicultural groups, especially the Hispanic / Latino populations in the US, Latin America, and the Caribbean.  In 2015 he co-founded the collaborative Batey Health Program along with faculty at the Universidad Central del Este in the Dominican Republic.  


Dr. Perez earned his bachelor’s degree in research in Mental Health at California State University, Dominguez Hills and his Master’s Degree and Ph.D. in health education from the Pennsylvania State University.  Dr. Perez holds honorary academic appointments at the School of Medicine in the Universidad Central del Este in the Dominican Republic and in the School of Medicine at the Universidad Ricardo Palma in Peru.

Maria Fernanda Durón, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora

He studied a Bachelor's degree in Psychology, a Master's degree and a Doctorate in Social Sciences at the University of Sonora. She is currently a research professor at the Technological Institute of Sonora (ITSON), Guaymas Unit. She coordinator of the Master's program in Psychology. She is an undergraduate and graduate professor in programs with quality accreditation in Mexico. She has the recognition of Desirable Profile within the Program for Professional Teacher Development (PRODEP). She is a member of the National System of Researchers (SNI level I), the Mexican Council for Educational Research and the Inter-American Society of Psychology. Her scientific interests are focused on positive personal factors.




How to Cite

Chacon Andrade, E. R., Lobos Rivera, M. E., Flores Monterrosa, A. N., Perez, M. A., & Durón, M. F. (2022). Sleep disorders in university students during COVID-19: United States of America, Mexico and El Salvador. Horizonte Sanitario, 22(1), 199-205.



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