Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on glial cells: An integrative review

Glía y estimulación magnética

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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.19136/hs.a23n2.5312

Abstract

Objective: To identify the main effects of repetitive type transcranial magnetic (rTMS) and theta burst (TBS) stimulation on glial cells such as astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes in animal models of different nervous system pathologies.

Material and methods: An integrative review was carried out in the Pubmed, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases published between 1995 and July 2022. We selected works that will use only rTMS and TBS configurations. The Boolean logical descriptors and operators AND, and OR were combined with the following words: “transcranial magnetic stimulation, glial cells/ astrocytes/ oligodendrocytes/ microglia”.

Results: Twenty-seven works were obtained, of which 81% were in vivo studies and the rest are works carried out in vitro, in which different models of pathologies are used. More than 80% of the works focus on reporting astrogliosis through the GFAP marker, while another 41% investigate what happens in the microglia with the Iba-1 marker, and only 9% of the investigations focus on oligodendrocytes at least in vivo studies.

Conclusions: The main effects reported of rTMS, and TBS was the decrease in glial and astroglial reactivity.  This decrease could be due to interaction among astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and neurons, which would lead to a recovery in different CNS pathologies.

 

Keywords: Astrocytes; Microglia; Oligodendrocytes; Inflammation.

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Author Biographies

  • Leticia Verdugo Díaz, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico

    Full-time Professor “B” of the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM. She obtained the degree of biologist from the Faculty of Sciences, the master's degree in Biomedical Sciences (Physiology) from the Faculty of Medicine and the Doctorate of Sciences from the Faculty of Sciences. Postdoctoral degree at the Université Joseph Fourier in Grenoble, France. She is a tutor for the Doctorate Programs in Biomedical Sciences, Postgraduate in Biological Sciences and Postgraduate in Medical, Dental and Health Sciences of the UNAM.

  • Rodrigo Acosta-Luna, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico

    Graduate in Psychology, Bioelectromagnetism Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico.

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Published

2024-06-17

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Section

Reviewed Articles

How to Cite

Verdugo Díaz, L., & Acosta-Luna, R. (2024). Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on glial cells: An integrative review: Glía y estimulación magnética . Horizonte Sanitario, 23(2). https://doi.org/10.19136/hs.a23n2.5312